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1 michael 3389 GNU Free Documentation License
2     Version 1.2, November 2002
3    
4    
5     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
6     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
7     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
8     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
9    
10    
11     0. PREAMBLE
12    
13     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
14     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
15     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
16     with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
17     Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
18     to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
19     for modifications made by others.
20    
21     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
22     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
23     complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
24     license designed for free software.
25    
26     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
27     software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
28     program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
29     software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
30     it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
31     whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
32     principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
33    
34    
35     1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
36    
37     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
38     contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
39     distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
40     world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
41     work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
42     refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
43     licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
44     copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
45     under copyright law.
46    
47     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
48     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
49     modifications and/or translated into another language.
50    
51     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
52     the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
53     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
54     (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
55     within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
56     textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
57     mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
58     connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
59     commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
60     them.
61    
62     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
63     are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
64     that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
65     section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
66     allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
67     Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
68     Sections then there are none.
69    
70     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
71     as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
72     the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
73     be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
74    
75     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
76     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
77     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
78     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
79     pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
80     drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
81     for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
82     to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
83     format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
84     or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
85     An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
86     of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
87    
88     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
89     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
90     or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
91     HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
92     transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
93     include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
94     proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
95     processing tools are not generally available, and the
96     machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
97     processors for output purposes only.
98    
99     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
100     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
101     this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
102     formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
103     the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
104     preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
105    
106     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
107     title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
108     text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
109     specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
110     "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
111     of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
112     section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
113    
114     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
115     states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
116     Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
117     License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
118     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
119     no effect on the meaning of this License.
120    
121    
122     2. VERBATIM COPYING
123    
124     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
125     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
126     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
127     to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
128     conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
129     technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
130     copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
131     compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
132     number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
133    
134     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
135     you may publicly display copies.
136    
137    
138     3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
139    
140     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
141     printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
142     Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
143     copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
144     Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
145     the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
146     you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
147     the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
148     visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
149     Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
150     the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
151     as verbatim copying in other respects.
152    
153     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
154     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
155     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
156     pages.
157    
158     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
159     more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
160     copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
161     a computer-network location from which the general network-using
162     public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
163     a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
164     If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
165     when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
166     that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
167     location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
168     Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
169     edition to the public.
170    
171     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
172     Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
173     them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
174    
175    
176     4. MODIFICATIONS
177    
178     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
179     the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
180     the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
181     Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
182     and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
183     of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
184    
185     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
186     from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
187     (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
188     of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
189     if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
190     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
191     responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
192     Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
193     Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
194     unless they release you from this requirement.
195     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
196     Modified Version, as the publisher.
197     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
198     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
199     adjacent to the other copyright notices.
200     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
201     giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
202     terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
203     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
204     and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
205     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
206     I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
207     to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
208     publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
209     there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
210     stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
211     given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
212     Version as stated in the previous sentence.
213     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
214     public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
215     the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
216     it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
217     You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
218     least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
219     publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
220     K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
221     Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
222     the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
223     and/or dedications given therein.
224     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
225     unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
226     or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
227     M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
228     may not be included in the Modified Version.
229     N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
230     or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
231     O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
232    
233     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
234     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
235     copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
236     of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
237     list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
238     These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
239    
240     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
241     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
242     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
243     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
244     standard.
245    
246     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
247     passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
248     of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
249     Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
250     through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
251     includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
252     by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
253     you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
254     permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
255    
256     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
257     give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
258     imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
259    
260    
261     5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
262    
263     You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
264     License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
265     versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
266     Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
267     list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
268     license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
269    
270     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
271     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
272     copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
273     different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
274     adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
275     author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
276     Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
277     Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
278    
279     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
280     in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
281     "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
282     and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
283     Entitled "Endorsements".
284    
285    
286     6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
287    
288     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
289     released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
290     License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
291     the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
292     verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
293    
294     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
295     it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
296     License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
297     other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
298    
299    
300     7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
301    
302     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
303     and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
304     distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
305     resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
306     of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
307     When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
308     apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
309     derivative works of the Document.
310    
311     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
312     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
313     the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
314     covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
315     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
316     Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
317     aggregate.
318    
319    
320     8. TRANSLATION
321    
322     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
323     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
324     Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
325     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
326     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
327     original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
328     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
329     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
330     the original English version of this License and the original versions
331     of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
332     the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
333     or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
334    
335     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
336     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
337     its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
338     title.
339    
340    
341     9. TERMINATION
342    
343     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
344     as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
345     copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
346     automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
347     parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
348     License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
349     parties remain in full compliance.
350    
351    
352     10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
353    
354     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
355     of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
356     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
357     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
358     http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
359    
360     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
361     If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
362     License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
363     following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
364     of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
365     Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
366     number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
367     as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
368    
369    
370     ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
371    
372     To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
373     the License in the document and put the following copyright and
374     license notices just after the title page:
375    
376     Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
377     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
378     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
379     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
380     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
381     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
382     Free Documentation License".
383    
384     If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
385     replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
386    
387     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
388     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
389    
390     If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
391     combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
392     situation.
393    
394     If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
395     recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
396     free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
397     to permit their use in free software.

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